Learning (Cognition, Diversity, Technology, Special Education)
Brain debate – application of content. Out of the box, cultural competency (identity development), brain – learning styles.

Cognition: ED 853
(1) Connell, Diane (2005). Brain-based strategies to reach every learner. Scholastic:New York, New York - Sara
Connell, Diane Video Lecture: What Are Your MI? -Sara
Connell, Diane Video Lecture: Are You a Right, Left, or Middle Brained Learner? -Sara

(2) Taylor, Jill Bolte (2006) My stroke of insight: a brain scientist’s personal journey. Viking, New York.

(3) Damasio, Antonio R. (1994). Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. New York: Grosset/Putnam.-Dolores
Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descarte's Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. New York: Grosset/Putnam- Sara

(4) Smith, E.E. & Kosslyn, S.M. (2007). Cognitive Psychology: Mind and Brain (1st ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

(5) Journal articles to be distributed in class and via Blackboard

(6) James Zull (2002). The art of changing the brain--enriching the practice of teaching exploring the biology of learning. Sterling, VA: Stylus. - Ann

(7) Gardner, H. (1985). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple Intelligences. NY, NY: Basic Books, Inc.

(8) Gardner, H (1999). Intelligence Reframed—Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. NY, NY: Basic Books Inc.
(9) Dempster, F. (1988). The Spacing Effect: A Case Study in the Failure to Apply the Results of Psychological Research. American Psychologist. 43(8), 627-634. - Sara
(9a) Ebinghaus information-Sara
(10) Roediger, H. L., Karpicke, J. D. (2006). Test Enhanced Learning: Taking Memory Tests Improves Long Term Retention. Psychological Science, 17(3), 249-255. - Sara
(11) Breuer, J. T. (1997). Education and the Brain: A Bridge Too Far. Educational Researcher, 26(8), 4-16.-Sara

Alferink, L. A., & Farmer-Dougan, V. (2010). Brain-(not) Based Education: Dangers of Misunderstanding and Misapplication of Neuroscience Research. Exceptionality, 18(1), 42-52. doi:10.1080/09362830903462573


Sharp, J. G., Bowker, R., & Byrne, J. (2008). VAK or VAK-uous? Towards the trivialisation of learning and the death of scholarship. Research Papers in Education, 23(3), 293-314. doi:10.1080/02671520701755416


Geake, J. (2008). Neuromythologies in education. Educational Research, 50(2), 123-133. doi:10.1080/00131880802082518


Special Education: ED 858

Gould, Stephen J. (1996). The Mismeasure of Man. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. - Sara

Gleason, John J. Special Education in Context: An Ethnographic Study of Persons with Developmental Disabilities. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2009
Hehir, Thomas; Latus, Thomas. Special Education at the Century’s End. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Educational Review, 1992.
traces special education's development into a major institution in the United States by examining the major debates and decisions that occurred during its growth from the early 1970s, a period of optimism and anticipation, through the current era of controversy and reevaluation.

Ingstad, Benedicte; Whyte, Susan Reynolds. Disability and Culture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.

Spurred by the United Nation's International Decade for Disabled Persons and medical anthropology's coming of age, anthropologists have recently begun to explore the effects of culture on the lives of the mentally and physically impaired. This major collection of essays both reframes disability in terms of social processes and offers for the first time a global, multicultural perspective on the subject. Using research undertaken in a wide variety of settings--from a longhouse in central Borneo to a community of Turkish immigrants in Stockholm--contributors explore the significance of mental, sensory, and motor impairments in light of fundamental, culturally determined assumptions about humanity and personhood

Itard, Jean Marc Gaspard. The Wild Boy of Aveyron. Engelwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1962
In 1800, the boy of the title was a child of perhaps twelve or thirteen who had been wandering alone in the mountainous forests of southern France for an unknown time before his capture. Like other children who have grown up without human contact, the lad, who was later named Victor, behaved in peculiar ways. Most importantly, he could not speak. Victor was discovered at a period when philosophical investigations into human nature had begun to affect medicine, psychology, and pedagogy. He was brought to Paris and turned over to a young doctor, Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard...Dr. Lane tells us how a whole new kind of education descends from Itard's lifework--first, the training of the physically handicapped, then the training of the mentally retarded. (Before modern times, both kinds of people were regarded as useless and unteachable.) Finally, through Maria Montessori, Itard's concepts were applied to teaching ordinary youngsters, and Dr. Lane points out how his difficult discoveries have become everyday assumptions. His book is an exceptionally readable, intelligent monument to one of humanity's benefactors and to his successors, who carried on in Itard's spirit of scientific curiosity, kindness, and doggedness. (New Yorker )

Pontiggia, Giuseppe. Born Twice. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002.
Veteran Italian writer Pontiggia illuminates "the distance that exists between the disabled and us" in this compassionate, deeply moral novel, his first to appear in English. When high school teacher Frigerio's son Paolo is born, a physician's ineptitude leaves the boy with permanent disabilities. Frigerio and his wife, Franca, are informed by a therapist that Paolo suffers from a neurological disorder that slows his learning and permanently hinders his motor skills, though he is quite lucid and intelligent. The novel comprises brief vignettes over Paolo's first 30 years, in which Frigerio offers wry observations about his complicated relationship with the boy and about the way others react to him. Frigerio parses doctors' examinations for hidden meanings, noting that conversations are conducted so that "no one ever has to say the truth." Franca provides a thorny counterpoint kind to Paolo and justifiably impatient with Frigerio but she is perhaps less realistic about the child's condition. Frigerio muses on the many ways people most notably an odious, manipulative principal who uses a bad leg as a psychological weapon exploit their own disabilities. Franca and their other son, Alfredo, have only bit parts; even Paolo often seems like a cipher hovering in the background. But Frigerio dogged, intelligent and self-aware will win readers over with an array of casual yet profound insights into the human condition ("Why not test for stupidity as a planetary epidemic?") and his fierce dedication to his son.

Sacks, O. (1995) An Anthropologist on Mars (“Prodigies”). New York: Vintage Books.

Neurologist Sacks presents seven case studies of people whose "abnormalities" of brain function offer new insights into conceptions of human personality and consciousness.

Smith, Deborah Deutsch. Introduction to Special Education: Teaching in an age of Opportunity. Boston: Pearson Education, 2004.

What is an IDEA 2004 Update Edition? Special Education has been updated to reflect this long-anticipated legislation in two ways: *Relevant discussion throughout the book has been revised to reflect IDEA '04. These revisions have been made while still preserving the original pagination of the text, so no changes to lecture notes or reading assignments are necessary, and all supplementary materials (and page references therein) remain accurate. An "IDEA 2004" icon appears in the margins adjacent to the updates.*A Guide to IDEA 2004 has been included as an appendix in the Update Edition. This clear, comprehensive, jargon-free appendix gives a brief side-by-side comparison of IDEA '04 versus the previous '97 legislation for each of the statutes, and, when a little friendly "background" would help the reader better understand the practical implications of the law, an additional note is provided. The Fifth Edition returns to its roots with a strong orientation toward practical classroom material, methods, and topics, continuing its commitment to presenting the voices of people with disabilities and their perspectives throughout the book, and providing clear and concise discussion of the nature and characteristics of exceptional students. It provides a problem-solving approach by presenting current special education dilemmas and challenging students to think about their solutions. The new edition retains its consistent outline in the categorical chapters and improves upon it with the addition of new recurring headings, creating a powerful learning tool for students. No book delivers the nuts and bolts of inclusive practice better, with practical interventions in every chapter.

Wright, Peter & Wright, Pamela (2007). Wrightslaw: Special Education Law, 2nd Edition. Hartfield, Virginia: Harbor House Law Press.

Wrightslaw: Special Education Law, 2nd Edition provides a clear roadmap to the laws and how to get better services for all children with disabilities. This Wrightslaw publication is an invaluable resource for parents, advocates, educators, and attorneys.

A Difference in the family - Sandy

ED 851

National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R. (Eds.)- Sara

Bransford (ED) How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience and School - Dawn