Preventing Prejudice Ponterotto & Pedersen
Chapter 1 :
· More differences within racial groups than between them
· So-called race-based differences in intelligence (connection to The Bell Curve)—psychological damage
· Minority = access to political power not number
· Ethnicity = social and cultural
· Culture = learned behavior
· Prejudice—rooted in inflexible generalizations/ negative and group focused
· Individual, Institutional, and Cultural racism
Chapter 2:
· Modern Racist: Believes racism no longer exists/minorities making unwarranted demands for changing status quo
· Outside conscious awareness: Housing, education, employment, healthcare, crime
· Early socialization of whites—matches Helms: Fosters isolation of whites and this is harmful
· Advantages (“the backpack” of white privilege)
· The idea of Racism as a disease (See Skillings and Dobbins, 1991): If racism were described as a disease, mental health experts would be more likely to devote energy to the topic/Counselors should play a major role in this—it is their ethical responsibility
· Humans have a natural propensity toward prejudice (Allport, 1979):
-Ethnocentrism-preferring our own group
-Lack of Intergroup Contact
-Relying on Ethnic Categorizations : helps us to manage events and “sense-making” in a highly complex society
Chapter 3:
· Early Formation of Racial Attitudes:
-not discussing in home
-not having culturally diverse group of friends
-not confronting
-not pointing out positive aspects of diversity & allowing children to be isolated
· World of Work: No diversity in management & tolerating sexism and racism at work
· Politics and law
Chapter 4:
Minority Identity Development:
· Dialectical approaches to ego identity development (Based on Erikson)
· Cognitive Dissonance at each stage (Psychosocial)
· Youth at risk for developing and internalizing negative stereotypes—racial self-loathing—modern look at the White Doll/Black Doll paradigm
· Atkinson, et al. (1989; 1993): All minorities experience oppression: the struggle is to develop strong ego identity in spite of this
· Stages:
-Conformity—to belong to dominant culture
-Dissonance—questioning conformity
-Resistance—immersion (eg., Malcolm X)—embracing one’s own racial group
-Introspection—Rigid ethnocentric views: begin to question this and issues of personal autonomy
-Synergetic Articulation and Awareness: high personal autonomy and secure racial identity
· Cross’ Model of Black Identity Development (1971):One of the most influential
· Stages:
-Pre-Encounter: Salience continuum: either very little or very much significance placed on being black
-may see being black as very important but in a negative way
Encounter: Can be a single event when confronted personally with racism
-must be personalized
-Immersion—immerses self into Afrocentric world/strong anti-white
-Emersion—realization that immersion experiences of blackness were romanticized
Internalization/Commitment: sustained commitment to activity in black issues

· Many of the models posit a point where minority individuals identify with White majority culture
· Predictive of lower self esteem
· All models have stages that fit the integrative stage—search for own racial identity—search can be stimulated by and event or series of events (encounters with racism)
· Stage 3 of these models—committing to immersion in one’s own roots may include rage at white majority
· All models: after a period of intense identification with one’s own culture, there is a reassessment and a more balanced view emerges—positive mental health indices

· Ponterotto’s White Racial Consciousness Development Model: Developed for Counselor training
· Stages:
Pre-Exposure: little thought on multicultural
Exposure: “multicultural counseling course”/White privilege/ White students begin to realize they have been lied to throughout education
Zealot-Defensive: Zealous—dealing with guilt OR respond defensively and withdraw
Integration: More balanced
Integrated Model: All 3 posit initial stage of lack of awareness/ all 3 newly discovered information white privilege—cognitive dissonance/Pro-minority stage/retreat into white culture—over-identification with Whiteness/Integration—all 3 models posit a point where Whites redefine what it means to be white today
Reintegration and Contact attitudes related to higher levels of racism
Fight or Flight: predicts that as Whites become the numerical minority they will come into contact with various races and feel threatened