Preventing Prejudice
358 pp.
Color line used to be problem. Civil rights. Now culture is the issue.
“Culture is a way of life, a design for living that is driven by beliefs, values, practices, symbols and ways of being.” (p.xxii)
People are not aware of bias. Implicit attitudes.
Colorblind strategy = ostrichlike.
New construct = multicultural personality, extends racial identity, correlates with ability to adapt to diverse environments and quality of life in general.
“ethnoviolence” – act motivated by group prejudice and intended to cause harm (physical or psychological)
Definition of terms – helpful section.
Ex. Race = there’s biologically based definitions based on physical characteristics, but there’s overlap – Genome project etc. Biologists have abandoned race as a useful classification construct. Therefore race is more socially constructed concept than biologically legitimate one.
Racism: individual, institutional, cultural
CoBRA – Colorblind racial attitudes
White racial identity development: racial attitudes toward self, for white people, develop in relation to their attitudes toward Blacks (Helms, 1990).
White identity development Models: Helms, Hardiman, Ponterotto
Helms’ model: 6 statuses: contact, disintegration, reintegration, pseudoindependence, immersion-emersion and autonomy. 2 themes: 1. abandonments of racism: contact, disintegration, reintegration 2. Developing a positive, nonracial White identity.
Whites have not been led to examine their own roles in race relations in the U.S. (Sue 2003, Sue et al 1998)
Hardiman (1982) social identity theory: model = no social consciousness, acceptance, resistance, redefinition, internalization
Ponterotto: pre-exposure, exposure, zealot defensive, integration
Vs. Rowe et al model – more attitudinal shifts than linear developmental model
Development theorists (Parham, 1989) admit identity development is not linear
Sue et al (1998) model: conformity, dissonance, resistance and immersion, introspection, integrative awareness
Most racial and ethnic identity models are culture or group specific (emic) and cannot be applied to people in general. Having a broader, more universally inclusive (etic) model of cultural self-integration and multicultural interpersonal competence would be helpful to researchers.
New construct = multicultural personality, can predict satisfaction with and quality of life
Nieto (2000) for teachers to work effectively in culturally diverse classrooms they must develop as “multicultural persons”
Banks (2001) develop multicultural citizens
Multicultural Counseling Competencies (p. 152)
Chapter 9 = teacher roles in prejudice reduction
Haberman (1994) model for reducing prejudice: analyzing prejudices, seeking the sources of beliefs, examining benefits of prejudice, considering the effects of prejudice, planning to eliminate prejudices
Teacher multicultural competencies (page 167)
Chapter: Parent roles in prejudice reduction
Chapter: Race Relations in elementary and middle schools – exercises to do in the classroom
Chapter: race relations in high school
Chapter: race relations on college campuses
Chapter: race relations in the community
Measures of teacher multicultural competence (Page 253) TMAS, CDAI
Racial identity measures
Guidelines for selecting multicultural instruments (page 261)
Final Chapter: a race awareness resource guide